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Table 1 Characteristics of patients

From: Primary hip arthroplasty for the treatment of alkaptonuric hip arthritis: 3- to 24-year follow-ups

Case Age/sex Duration of pain Side of hip Cutaneous manifestations Urine discoloration Family history Spine Comorbidities Presentation Last follow up
1 53/M 3 years Left Present Yes Yes Stiff with restriction of movements Nil Bilateral groin pain; Disturbed sleep; needed assistance in the form of elbow crutches to walk; undergone bilateral total knee replacement 2 years back
Patient was advised Right side uncemented total hip replacement.
3.7 years
2 55/M 1 year Right Present Yes Yes Stiff with restriction of movements Nil Right groin pain; unable to walk for more than 5mins, sleep was disturbed 16.4 years
3 80/F 4 months Both Absent Yes No Stiff with restriction of movements Hypertension, Diabetes, Ischemic Heart disease, Valvular calcification, Hypothyroidism Pain in left side of groin for past 4 months and pain in both the knees; unable to walk due to pain.
Right total hip replacement was done years back.
15.7 years (Right hip)
13.7 years (left)
4 65/F 10 years Both Present Yes No Stiff with restriction of movements Hypertension, Diabetes Pain in both groin, along with bilateral knee pain and back pain for past 10 years; Patient was bed ridden and disabled with pain 18.5 (Left) 16.7 (right) years (bilateral hip)
patient died ~ 16 years after the second surgery
5 63/F 6 months Left Present Yes No Stiff with restriction of movements Hypertension, Diabetes, Hiatus Hernia, Umbilical hernia, peptic ulcer Pain in the left groin for the past 6 months. She also had pain in both the knees and shoulder with limitation of movements. 22.5 years
6 66/F 10 months Left Present Yes Yes Stiff with restriction of movements Hypertension, Diabetes; Obese Pain in both the groin for past 10 months. Left hip was more painful than the right side causing difficulty in walking and need of assistance in the form of walker to walk. Low Backache 19.2 years
7 60/M 1 years Right Present Yes Yes Stiff with restriction of movements Hypertension, Diabetes Spontaneous and increasing pain in both hips, more severe on the right. Low backache with difficulty in walking 20.2 years
8 64/M 1.5 years Right Present Yes Yes Stiff with restriction of movements Hypertension, Diabetes Progressive pain in right hip joint for the last 1.5 years and low back ache from the last 10 years. Orthosis assisted walking 10.5 years
9 57/M 2 years Right Absent No Yes Stiff with restriction of movements Nil Pain in right groin since 2 years with marked restriction of movements. 24.1 years
10 65/M 10 months Left Present Yes Yes Stiff with restriction of movements Hypertension Pain was dull aching, insidious in onset, continuous in nature more on the left side than right, interfering with his day to day activities 18.9 years