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Table 1 Studies included in final analysis

From: Is methylmethacrylate toxic during pregnancy and breastfeeding?--- a systematic review

Authors Title Type of Study Application of MMA Results
Singh et al. (1972) [9] Embryonic-Fetal Toxicity and Teratogenic Effects of a Group of Methacrylate Esters in Rats Animal study
22 groups of 5 female rats, underwent intraperitoneal injections of methacrylate esters on various days of gestation and at various doses
Denture bases Fetuses in group exposed to MMA had significant increase in gross abnormalities such as hemangiomas and had significantly lower birth weight.
No skeletal malformations were observed with any MMA dose used in this study.
McLaughlin et al. (1978) [3] Methylmathacrylate: A Study of Teratogenicity and Fetal Toxicity of the Vapor in the Mouse Animal study
32 pregnant mice
14 control
18 exposed to MMA vapor
Total joint arthroplasty Slight increase in average weight of fetuses in exposed mothers was noted.
No other evidence or fetal toxicity or teratologic effects were found.
Nicholas et al. (1979) [10] Embryotoxicity and Fetotoxicity from Maternal Inhalation of Methyl Methacrylate Monomer in Rats Animal study, pregnant rats exposed to MMA vapor
233 fetuses in short exposure
185 fetuses in long exposure
263 fetuses in air control
229 fetuses untreated control
Denture bases Long exposure to MMA vapor on days 6–15 of gestation had increased incidence of early fetal deaths, hemangiomas, delayed vertebral & sternal ossification and decreased fetal weight and crown-rump length.
MMA exposure did not significantly affect incidence of implantations, resorptions, or number of living fetuses per litter.
Chen et al. (1998) [11] Free Radicals are Involved in Methymethacrylated-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Primary Neocortical Cell Cultures Basic science study
Exposed embryonic brain issue used for neuro-enriched culture to MMA monomer
Dental implants Neocortical neurons exposed to MMA had increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, irregular shrunken cell bodies, lysis, neurotoxicity.
Dahl et al. (1999) [12] Dental workplace exposure and effect on fertility Retrospective cohort study
558 female dental surgeons
450 high school teachers with at least 1 child
Dental surgery, including amalgams and other implants No difference was found in rates of birth defects.
Study does not specifically control for MMA exposure, but addresses dental surgery in general.
Linehan et al. (2006) [13] Serum and Breast Milk Levels of Methylmethacrylate Following Surgeon Exposure During Arthroplasty Serum and breast milk analyzed from 2 lactating orthopaedic surgeons after exposure to MMA compared to 2 healthy controls Total joint arthroplasty No serum or breast milk sample had detectable MMA levels following inhalational exposure during total joint arthroplasty.
Lindbohm et al. (2007) [14] Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage Case controlled retrospective study
222 cases of miscarriage
498 controls (births)
Dental applications There was a slight but not significant increase in odds for miscarriage for those exposed to MMA in air or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dust.
Homlar et al. (2013) [15] Serum Levels of Methyl Methacrylate Following Inhalational Exposure to Polymethylmethacrylate Bone Cement 20 healthy volunteers exposed to mixing of PMMA cement in simulated operating room, then serum levels obtained Joint arthroplasty MMA was not detected in any of the specimens after exposure during routine mixing of PMMA cement.
Speeckaert et al. (2015) [16] Airborne Exposure of Methyl Methacrylate During Simulated Total Hip Arthroplasty and Fabrication of Antibiotic Beads Simulated operating room where the airborne exposure of MMA during total hip arthroplasty and antibiotic beads fabrication was measured Total hip arthroplasty
Antibiotic beads
MMA levels fell to baseline at an average of 11 min post mixing in all total hip arthroplasty simulations. By these authors’ measurements, the MMA exposure was a small fraction of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration limit during an 8 h limit.