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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies comparing buried versus exposed Kirschner wire osteosynthesis for phalangeal, metacarpal and distal radial fractures

From: Effect of buried vs. exposed Kirschner wire osteosynthesis on phalangeal, metacarpal and distal radial fractures: A systematic review and meta-analysis

StudyCountryInterventionsSample sizeFollow-up (week)Study designFor analysis
AI-Qattan 2008Saudi ArabiaExposed vs Buried40/3814Retrospective comparativeInfection rate
Hargreaves 2004 [5]UKExposed vs Buried29/276RCTInfection rate; Kirschner wire removal in operating room; Early pin removal
Mcquail 2015 [7]IrelandExposed vs Buried33/286Retrospective comparativeInfection rate
Rafique 2006 [19]PakistanExposed vs Buried30/304Retrospective comparativeInfection rate
Ridley 2017 [6]USAExposed vs Buried488/207Retrospective comparativeInfection rate; Early pin removal
Terndrup 2018 [9]DenmarkExposed vs Buried107/33713Retrospective comparativeInfection rate; Kirschner wire removal in operating room
Waheed 2004 [20]IrelandExposed vs Buried27/255.8RCTKirschner wire removal in operating room
  1. Note: RCT Randomized controlled trial