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Table 2 Comparison of patient demographics per quarter for elective THA

From: The combined effect of policy changes and the covid-19 pandemic on the same day discharge and complications following total hip arthroplasty: a nationwide analysis

Quarter of Operation   2019 2020 P Value
  1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Number of Patients   10,591 11,360 10,987 10,729 9448 5331 10,451 8900  
Age Cohorts  < 40 204 (1.9) 217 (1.9) 208 (1.9) 240 (2.2) 185 (2.0) 124 (2.3) 207 (2.0) 179 (2.0)  < 0.001
40–44 178 (1.7) 209 (1.8) 188 (1.7) 199 (1.9) 171 (1.8) 92 (1.7) 174 (1.7) 174 (2.0)  
45–49 377 (3.6) 387 (3.4) 374 (3.4) 420 (3.9) 294 (3.1) 184 (3.5) 325 (3.1) 338 (3.8)  
50–54 720 (6.8) 762 (6.7) 745 (6.8) 742 (6.9) 637 (6.7) 396 (7.4) 676 (6.5) 667 (7.5)  
55–59 1302 (12.3) 1386 (12.2) 1293 (11.8) 1393 (13.0) 1098 (11.6) 753 (14.1) 1220 (11.7) 1141 (12.8)  
60–64 1785 (16.9) 1927 (17.0) 1809 (16.5) 1870 (17.4) 1550 (16.4) 868 (16.3) 1771 (16.9) 1567 (17.6)  
65–69 1968 (18.6) 2059 (18.1) 2016 (18.3) 1926 (18.0) 1869 (19.8) 1007 (18.9) 1917 (18.3) 1696 (19.1)  
70–74 1817 (17.2) 1929 (17.0) 1966 (17.9) 1728 (16.1) 1586 (16.8) 904 (17.0) 1870 (17.9) 1437 (16.1)  
75–79 1167 (11.0) 1289 (11.3) 1295 (11.8) 1236 (11.5) 1095 (11.6) 539 (10.1) 1230 (11.8) 930 (10.4)  
80–84 702 (6.6) 780 (6.9) 706 (6.4) 629 (5.9) 582 (6.2) 308 (5.8) 679 (6.5) 512 (5.8)  
85 +  371 (3.5) 415 (3.7) 387 (3.5) 346 (3.2) 381 (4.0) 156 (2.9) 382 (3.7) 259 (2.9)  
Gender female 5610 (53.0) 6322 (55.7) 6159 (56.1) 5651 (52.7) 5090 (53.9) 2863 (53.7) 5716 (54.7) 4699 (52.8)  < 0.001
male 4981 (47.0) 5038 (44.3) 4828 (43.9) 5078 (47.3) 4358 (46.1) 2468 (46.3) 4735 (45.3) 4201 (47.2)  
Race American Indian or Alaska Native 38 (.4) 41 (.4) 40 (.4) 44 (.4) 42 (.4) 33 (.6) 38 (.4) 39 (.4)  < 0.001
Asian 140 (1.3) 169 (1.5) 141 (1.3) 144 (1.3) 133 (1.4) 121 (2.3) 229 (2.2) 226 (2.5)  
Black or African American 833 (7.9) 968 (8.5) 946 (8.6) 889 (8.3) 809 (8.6) 405 (7.6) 955 (9.1) 844 (9.5)  
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 20 (.2) 16 (.1) 23 (.2) 15 (.1) 33 (.3) 12 (.2) 16 (.2) 14 (.2)  
Some Other Race 0 (.0) 0 (.0) 0 (.0) 0 (.0) 2 (.0) 0 (.0) 10 (.1) 20 (.2)  
Unknown/Not Reported 2538 (24.0) 2662 (23.4) 2579 (23.5) 2663 (24.8) 2156 (22.8) 795 (14.9) 2326 (22.3) 2062 (23.2)  
White 7022 (66.3) 7504 (66.1) 7258 (66.1) 6974 (65.0) 6273 (66.4) 3965 (74.4) 6877 (65.8) 5695 (64.0)  
BMI Category  < 18.5 70 (.7) 99 (.9) 87 (.8) 75 (.7) 77 (.8) 37 (.7) 93 (.9) 83 (.9) 0.444
18.5–24.9 1882 (17.8) 2022 (17.8) 1883 (17.1) 1861 (17.3) 1633 (17.3) 972 (18.2) 1913 (18.3) 1611 (18.1)  
25.0–29.9 3542 (33.4) 3682 (32.4) 3682 (33.5) 3559 (33.2) 3054 (32.3) 1742 (32.7) 3400 (32.5) 2896 (32.5)  
30.0–34.9 2811 (26.5) 3005 (26.5) 2925 (26.6) 2894 (27.0) 2611 (27.6) 1424 (26.7) 2687 (25.7) 2356 (26.5)  
35.0–39.9 1473 (13.9) 1671 (14.7) 1562 (14.2) 1527 (14.2) 1377 (14.6) 721 (13.5) 1508 (14.4) 1265 (14.2)  
40.0 +  756 (7.1) 823 (7.2) 785 (7.1) 760 (7.1) 650 (6.9) 373 (7.0) 757 (7.2) 619 (7.0)  
Diabetes mellitus Insulin Dependent 298 (2.8) 318 (2.8) 340 (3.1) 326 (3.0) 264 (2.8) 136 (2.6) 319 (3.1) 247 (2.8) 0.389
No 9303 (87.8) 9928 (87.4) 9625 (87.6) 9407 (87.7) 8304 (87.9) 4720 (88.5) 9121 (87.3) 7765 (87.2)  
Non-Insulin Dependent 990 (9.3) 1114 (9.8) 1022 (9.3) 996 (9.3) 880 (9.3) 475 (8.9) 1011 (9.7) 888 (10.0)  
Current smoker No 9346 (88.2) 10,069 (88.6) 9669 (88.0) 9537 (88.9) 8374 (88.6) 4785 (89.8) 9270 (88.7) 7862 (88.3) 0.054
Yes 1245 (11.8) 1291 (11.4) 1318 (12.0) 1192 (11.1) 1074 (11.4) 546 (10.2) 1181 (11.3) 1038 (11.7)  
Dyspnea At Rest 15 (.1) 13 (.1) 12 (.1) 12 (.1) 9 (.1) 6 (.1) 11 (.1) 11 (.1) 0.007
Moderate Exertion 488 (4.6) 514 (4.5) 519 (4.7) 480 (4.5) 406 (4.3) 161 (3.0) 446 (4.3) 392 (4.4)  
No 10,088 (95.3) 10,833 (95.4) 10,456 (95.2) 10,237 (95.4) 9033 (95.6) 5164 (96.9) 9994 (95.6) 8497 (95.5)  
Functional health status Independent 10,380 (98.0) 11,105 (97.8) 10,744 (97.8) 10,526 (98.1) 9264 (98.1) 5244 (98.4) 10,230 (97.9) 8693 (97.7)  < 0.001
Partially Dependent 144 (1.4) 153 (1.3) 139 (1.3) 134 (1.2) 136 (1.4) 73 (1.4) 190 (1.8) 158 (1.8)  
Totally Dependent 5 (.0) 7 (.1) 8 (.1) 5 (.0) 5 (.1) 7 (.1) 12 (.1) 13 (.1)  
Unknown 62 (.6) 95 (.8) 96 (.9) 64 (.6) 43 (.5) 7 (.1) 19 (.2) 36 (.4)  
History of Severe COPD No 10,214 (96.4) 10,938 (96.3) 10,538 (95.9) 10,336 (96.3) 9127 (96.6) 5168 (96.9) 10,019 (95.9) 8609 (96.7) 0.001
Yes 377 (3.6) 422 (3.7) 449 (4.1) 393 (3.7) 321 (3.4) 163 (3.1) 432 (4.1) 291 (3.3)  
Congestive heart failure (CHF) No 10,556 (99.7) 11,297 (99.4) 10,947 (99.6) 10,683 (99.6) 9408 (99.6) 5311 (99.6) 10,401 (99.5) 8866 (99.6) 0.241
Yes 35 (.3) 63 (.6) 40 (.4) 46 (.4) 40 (.4) 20 (.4) 50 (.5) 34 (.4)  
Hypertension No 4870 (46.0) 5044 (44.4) 4852 (44.2) 4977 (46.4) 4306 (45.6) 2456 (46.1) 4702 (45.0) 4079 (45.8) 0.007
Yes 5721 (54.0) 6316 (55.6) 6135 (55.8) 5752 (53.6) 5142 (54.4) 2875 (53.9) 5749 (55.0) 4821 (54.2)  
Currently on dialysis (pre-op) No 10,575 (99.8) 11,338 (99.8) 10,966 (99.8) 10,709 (99.8) 9431 (99.8) 5317 (99.7) 10,432 (99.8) 8877 (99.7) 0.734
Yes 16 (.2) 22 (.2) 21 (.2) 20 (.2) 17 (.2) 14 (.3) 19 (.2) 23 (.3)  
Steroid use for chronic condition No 10,221 (96.5) 10,978 (96.6) 10,605 (96.5) 10,366 (96.6) 9127 (96.6) 5155 (96.7) 10,081 (96.5) 8592 (96.5) 0.993
Yes 370 (3.5) 382 (3.4) 382 (3.5) 363 (3.4) 321 (3.4) 176 (3.3) 370 (3.5) 308 (3.5)  
 > 10% loss body weight in last 6 months No 10,574 (99.8) 11,337 (99.8) 10,965 (99.8) 10,707 (99.8) 9428 (99.8) 5316 (99.7) 10,425 (99.8) 8884 (99.8) 0.804
Yes 17 (.2) 23 (.2) 22 (.2) 22 (.2) 20 (.2) 15 (.3) 26 (.2) 16 (.2)  
Bleeding disorders No 10,438 (98.6) 11,170 (98.3) 10,772 (98.0) 10,537 (98.2) 9274 (98.2) 5235 (98.2) 10,243 (98.0) 8739 (98.2) 0.088
Yes 153 (1.4) 190 (1.7) 215 (2.0) 192 (1.8) 174 (1.8) 96 (1.8) 208 (2.0) 161 (1.8)  
mFI 0 4499 (42.5) 4637 (40.8) 4469 (40.7) 4557 (42.5) 3964 (42.0) 2269 (42.6) 4312 (41.3) 3733 (41.9) 0.013
1 4715 (44.5) 5171 (45.5) 5028 (45.8) 4793 (44.7) 4261 (45.1) 2415 (45.3) 4651 (44.5) 3982 (44.7)  
2 1285 (12.1) 1442 (12.7) 1373 (12.5) 1284 (12.0) 1144 (12.1) 609 (11.4) 1359 (13.0) 1093 (12.3)  
3 84 (.8) 102 (.9) 109 (1.0) 91 (.8) 77 (.8) 36 (.7) 122 (1.2) 84 (.9)  
4 7 (.1) 8 (.1) 8 (.1) 2 (.0) 2 (.0) 2 (.0) 7 (.1) 8 (.1)  
5 1 (.0) 0 (.0) 0 (.0) 2 (.0) 0 (.0) 0 (.0) 0 (.0) 0 (.0)  
Inpatient/outpatient Inpatient 10,119 (95.5) 10,756 (94.7) 10,336 (94.1) 9951 (92.7) 7249 (76.7) 3273 (61.4) 6380 (61.0) 5075 (57.0)  < 0.001
Outpatient 472 (4.5) 604 (5.3) 651 (5.9) 778 (7.3) 2199 (23.3) 2058 (38.6) 4071 (39.0) 3825 (43.0)  
ASA classification 1-No Disturbance 354 (3.3) 374 (3.3) 311 (2.8) 380 (3.5) 291 (3.1) 155 (2.9) 270 (2.6) 288 (3.2)  < 0.001
2-Mild Disturbance 5417 (51.1) 5711 (50.3) 5591 (50.9) 5460 (50.9) 4766 (50.4) 2849 (53.4) 5113 (48.9) 4582 (51.5)  
3-Severe Disturbance 4655 (44.0) 5031 (44.3) 4872 (44.3) 4715 (43.9) 4195 (44.4) 2233 (41.9) 4825 (46.2) 3848 (43.2)  
4-Life Threat 155 (1.5) 231 (2.0) 202 (1.8) 171 (1.6) 194 (2.1) 94 (1.8) 234 (2.2) 168 (1.9)  
Principal anesthesia technique Epidural 53 (.5) 65 (.6) 69 (.6) 79 (.7) 42 (.4) 47 (.9) 90 (.9) 43 (.5)  < 0.001
General 4366 (41.2) 4584 (40.4) 4501 (41.0) 4331 (40.4) 3689 (39.0) 2171 (40.7) 3981 (38.1) 3308 (37.2)  
MAC/IV Sedation 2173 (20.5) 2287 (20.1) 2283 (20.8) 2220 (20.7) 2202 (23.3) 1133 (21.3) 2465 (23.6) 2162 (24.3)  
Regional 110 (1.0) 127 (1.1) 131 (1.2) 141 (1.3) 162 (1.7) 116 (2.2) 210 (2.0) 175 (2.0)  
Spinal 3879 (36.6) 4287 (37.7) 3999 (36.4) 3946 (36.8) 3346 (35.4) 1859 (34.9) 3698 (35.4) 3206 (36.0)  
Other 10 (0.1) 10 (0.1) 4 (0.0) 12 (0.1) 7 (0.1) 5 (0.1) 7 (0.1) 6 (0.1)  
Total operation time (minutes)   89.37 89.48 89.99 90.4 90.59 91.93 91.85 92.39  < 0.001
Length of hospital stay (days)   1.86 1.79 1.76 1.68 1.68 1.48 1.52 1.48  < 0.001
Length of Stay (days) 0 899 (8.5) 1066 (9.4) 1072 (9.8) 1195 (11.1) 1057 (11.2) 1074 (20.1) 1869 (17.9) 1854 (20.8)  < 0.001
1 4518 (42.7) 4969 (43.7) 4997 (45.5) 5081 (47.4) 4746 (50.2) 2686 (50.4) 5245 (50.2) 4435 (49.8)  
 ≥ 2 5158 (48.7) 5320 (46.8) 4912 (44.7) 4450 (41.5) 3637 (38.5) 1571 (29.5) 3336 (31.9) 2609 (29.3)  
  1. Values are reported as N (%) or means
  2. mFI Modified Frailty Index